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How to Teach Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words 2

Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words                                                       

Common Core Language Standard 1

We speak differently in different social situations. Hopefully, you talk to your mom and teacher differently than the way you talk to your friends. Most of us text differently than the way we write an essay. After all, beginning an essay with “BTW some so reb ldrs thot they really would win the civil war LOL” will probably not impress your history teacher. Students definitely need to learn the fine art of “code switching.” To code switch means to consider your audience and adjust what you say or write and how you do so. Using non-standard English in the wrong setting, such as in the classroom, is important to recognize and avoid.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words. Remember that Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. Often we are used to hearing and saying words or expressions that are not Standard English. Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples. 

Following are commonly misused words:

  • Additions: We should say anyway, not anyways. We should say toward, not towards.
  • Deletions: We should say used to, not use to. We should say nothing, not nothin’. something, not somethin’, and anything, not anythin’. Example: I used to play guitar.
  • Misused Phrases: We should say I couldn’t care less, not I could care less. We should say once in a while, not once and a while. We should say any more, not no more. We should say could have, not could of. And no would of, should of, might of.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice:  I could care less if you put somethin’ towards the balance of the loan. That amount doesn’t matter much anyways.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers:  I couldn’t care less if you put something toward the balance of the loan. That amount doesn’t matter much anyway.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a commonly misused phrase.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Spelling/Vocabulary, Writing , , , , , , , , ,

Numbers within Text

Numbers within Text                                                     

Common Core Language Standard 2

How to properly write numbers outside of your math class can be quite confusing. Maybe it’s because we don’t even use our own numbers. We borrow Roman numerals for formal outlines and the dates at the end of our favorite movies. We use Arabic numerals for just about everything else. Arabic numerals are the symbols for our number system and most all the world uses them.

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Spell out numbers from one to nine, but use Arabic numerals for #s10 and larger. However, spell out the number if used at the beginning of a sentence. Examples: five, 24, Six is a lot of donuts.

If a sentence has one number from one to nine and others larger, use Arabic numerals for all. Examples: Both numbers 2 and 12 were selected.

If numbers are next to each other, use the Arabic numeral for one and spell out the other. Examples: We ate 3 six-inch sandwiches.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson. 

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Practice: “Twelve is a dozen. However, we say that 13 is a baker’s dozen and two is a pair.”

Let’s check the Practice Answers. 

Mechanics Practice Answers: “Twelve is a dozen. However, we say that 13 is a baker’s dozen and 2 is a pair.”

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using 1 number from 1-9 and 1 number above 10.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

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Non-standard English Misused Words

Non-standard English  Misused Words                                                         

Common Core Language Standard 1

Sometimes we hear an incorrect word or phrase so often that it sounds correct. Learning to pay attention to those commonly misused words and phrases will help you use them correctly in your speaking and writing.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Commonly Misused Words. Remember that Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. Often we are used to hearing and saying words that are not Standard English. 

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Following are commonly misused words:

  • Farther refers to a physical distance. Example: How much farther is the next restaurant? Further refers to a degree or more time. Example: Further your knowledge by reading.
  • Beside means “next to.” Examples: She sits beside me. Besides means “except” or “furthermore.” Example: No one is having fun besides him. I am tired, besides I am sick.
  • Less deals with an amount, but can’t be counted. Example: I want less food. Fewer deals with an amount you can count. Example: I want fewer apples, not more.
  • Disinterested describes a person who is neutral, fair, and impartial. Example: The disinterested referee made the call. Uninterested describes a person who is not interested. Example: The uninterested girl paid no attention to the flirtatious boy.
  • Allowed means permitted. Example: Parking is allowed on this street. Aloud means heard by others. Example: He spoke aloud to the class.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: I’m really disinterested about the season. I am watching less games than ever. Plus, the stadium is further than I want to go and tailgating isn’t aloud. And I have to sit beside a stranger.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I’m really disinterested about the season. I am watching fewer games than ever. Plus, the stadium is farther than I want to go and tailgating isn’t allowed. And I have to sit beside a stranger.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application:  Write your own sentence using a non-standard English Commonly Misused Words. Then write a second sentence correcting that non-standard English.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

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Slashes

Slashes                                                       

Common Core Language Standard 2

English has a variety of punctuation marks which may be used for the same function. For example, brackets and parentheses can be used interchangeably. We can use parentheses, dashes, or commas to set off appositives to identify, define, or explain a preceding noun or pronoun. However, slashes have their own special function, though they are often misused and abused. With informal writing, such as texts and notes, misusing punctuation is no real problem, but in formal writing, such as essays, research papers, and business letters, proper punctuation is important.

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

In informal writing, use a slash to separate dates, abbreviate, or to mean or. Examples: The dinner is scheduled on 3/11/2013 as a b/w (black or white tie) event for him/her.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: You could give the present to either him-her and (or) the letter any day after 11/24.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: You could give the present to either him/her and/or the letter any day after 11/24.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using slashes.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

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Non-standard English Substitutions

Non-standard English Substitutions                                                        

Common Core Language Standard 1

The study of languages is fascinating. In particular, learning about dialects helps us appreciate our differences. Dialect is a form of a language that is spoken by a specific group of people in a certain area and uses some of its own words, grammar, and pronunciations. 

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Substitutions. Remember that Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. The progressive verb tense is used to indicate an ongoing physical or mental action or state of being. The present progressive connects am, are, or is to a present participle (a verb with an “__ing” ending). The forms of the “to be” verb are is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been. Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples. 

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lessons and study the examples.

Don’t substitute be for is to create an ongoing action in Standard English. Example: He be so funny. Instead, use the present progressive verb tense to connect am, are, or is to a present participle (a verb with an “__ing” ending). Revisions: He is so funny; He is being so funny.

Also, use the proper form of the “to be” verb to match its subject. Example: She were late. Revision: She was late.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: They be given plenty of money. They is lying if they say they don’t have enough.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: They are given plenty of money. They are lying if they say they don’t have enough.

Now let’s apply what we have learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a non-standard English substitution. Then write a second sentence correcting that non-standard English.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , , , , , , , ,

Hyphens

Hyphens                                                        

Common Core Language Standard 2

Hyphens are short dashes used to combine words. When the hyphen combines words and becomes part of common usage, the editors of our dictionaries decide to drop the hyphen and the two words become a compound noun. The only way to know whether the words are hyphenated or combined into a single compound word is to look up the word(s) in a print or online dictionary.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to use hyphens. A hyphen is a short dash (-) used to combine words. Hyphens join base words to form compound words. Hyphens are also used for numbers and spelled-out fractions. Additionally, hyphens join compound adjectives.

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Use hyphens for compound adverbs that don’t end in “_ly,” when used before nouns. A compound adverb has two connected adverbs. Example: The much-requested song

When the compound adverb is after the noun, don’t hyphenate. Example: Her wishes were always well known.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: I woke up this morning at 7:30 AM. because I fell asleep last night at 10:00 p.m.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: I woke up this morning at 7:30 a.m. because I fell asleep last night at 10:00 p.m.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a hyphen.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , , , , , , , , ,

Non-standard English Additions

Non-standard English Additions                                                        

Common Core Language Standard 1

Some people can’t leave “well enough alone.” In other words, they have to add on more than what is needed. People do this in their speaking and writing as well.

Today’s grammar and usage lesson is on Non-standard English Additions. Non-standard English often differs from Standard English because of regional or cultural dialects. 

Now let’s read the grammar and usage lesson and study the examples.

Avoid using non-standard use additions. Don’t add the of or on prepositions when unnecessary. Examples: Get off of my couch. Don’t blame on me for that.

When writing in Standard English, do not use double negatives. Example: Don’t use no notes on the test.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to grammar and usage lesson.

Practice: All of a sudden, she changed her mind. She said she did it on accident. She never did nothing like that before now.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Grammar and Usage Practice Answers: Suddenly, she changed her mind. She said she did it accidentally. She never did anything like that before now.

Now let’s apply what we have learned.

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using a non-standard English addition. Then write a second sentence correcting that non-standard English.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , , , , , , , , ,

Brackets

How to Teach Brackets                                                 

Common Core Language Standard 2

English has a wide variety of punctuation. The British use brackets the way Americans use parentheses. Punctuation is based more upon tradition than upon clearly defined rules.

Today’s mechanics lesson is on how to use brackets. Brackets can serve the same purpose as parentheses.

Now let’s read the mechanics lesson and study the examples.

Use brackets to provide missing or explanatory information within direct quotations. Example: You found it [the missing coat] on the table.

In scripts and plays, brackets are also used as stage directions both inside and outside of dialogue. Example: [Nervously] I don’t know what you mean.

Now circle or highlight what is right and revise what is wrong according to mechanics lesson.

Practice: “Please refer to the Addendum-page 71-to review the violations [of the city ordinances],” the attorney counseled.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Let’s check the Practice Answers.

Mechanics Practice Answers: “Please refer to the Addendum [page 71] to review the violations [of the city ordinances],” the attorney counseled.

Now let’s apply what we’ve learned. 

Writing Application: Write your own sentence using brackets.

This writing opener is part of a comprehensive language conventions lesson from the Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)  Grades 4‒8 programs. Complete descriptions, instructional scopes and sequences, introductory video, previews, and two-week test drives of the grade-level teacher guides and student workbooks are available here.

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