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How to Teach the Common Core Vocabulary Standards

Academic language must be taught, not just caught.

According to the authors of the Common Core State Standards, “New words and phrases are acquired not only through reading and being read to but also through direct vocabulary instruction… Research suggests that if students are going to grasp and retain words and comprehend text, they need incremental, repeated exposure in a variety of contexts to the words they are trying to learn” (Appendix A).

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) provides that incremental, repeated exposure in a variety of contexts: The program includes 56 vocabulary worksheets in the student workbook including context clues practice with word relationships, multiple meaning words, Greek and Latin word parts, figures of speech, connotations, and denotations/dictionary skills. Vocabulary Study Cards are provided for each lesson.

Appendix A details the categories of academic language to be taught within the Vocabulary Standards. The authors cite the research of Isabel L. Beck, Margaret G. McKeown, and Linda Kucan (2002, 2008) in which these authors describe “three levels, or tiers, of words in terms of the words’ commonality (more to less frequently occurring) and applicability (broader to narrower).

  • Tier One words are the words of everyday speech usually learned in the early grades.
  • Tier Two words (what the Standards refer to as general academic words) are far more likely to appear in written texts than in speech… Because Tier Two words are found across many types of texts, they are highly generalizable.
  • Tier Three words (what the Standards refer to as domain-specific words) are specific to a domain or field of study (lava, carburetor, legislature, circumference, aorta) and key to understanding a new concept within a text. Because of their specificity and close ties to content knowledge, Tier Three words are far more common in informational texts than in literature” (Appendix A).

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) includes Tier Two academic vocabulary words from the research-based Academic Word List (Coxhead, A.

Pennington Publishing's Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 Programs

(2000). A new academic word list. In TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 34) and requires students to practice these words in depth by producing synonyms, antonyms, characteristics, examples, and pictures or symbols‒exactly as detailed by the Common Core authors.

Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)

The author of this article, Mark Pennington, has written the assessment-based Grammar, Usage, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4-8 programs to teach the Common Core grammar, usage, mechanics, spelling, and vocabulary Standards. Diagnostic assessments and targeted worksheets help your students catch up while they keep up with rigorous grade-level direct instruction.

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