Archive

Posts Tagged ‘sentence diagrams’

How to Teach Sentence Diagramming

Sentence diagramming can be a useful visual tool to teach students how to identify the different parts of sentences, understand how these parts function, and see how these parts relate to

FREE Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice Lessons

Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice

other parts of a sentence. Most students find that the visual image helps them better understand and remember grammatical terms, the parts of a sentence, and the basic rules of grammar. Sentence diagrams take the abstract components of English grammar and make them concrete. With practice, writers can use diagramming to diagnose their own grammatical errors and fix them.

Objectives: Students will learn the how a sentence diagram depicts the subject, predicate, direct object, and indirect object of a sentence. Students will learn the definitions of these parts of the sentence. Students will apply proper nouns, action verbs, common nouns, and object case pronouns to their diagrams.

Lesson #1      Introduction

  1. Draw a simple horizontal line and write a subject on top to the left. Make the subject a proper noun and define the word as “the do-er” of the sentence.
  2. Draw a vertical line after the subject and extend it just under the line.
  3. Write a predicate on top of the horizontal line, just to the right of the vertical line. Make the predicate a present tense action verb that will easily lead to a direct object without an article (a, an, and the). Define the predicate as “the action” of the subject and “what the ‘do-er’ does.”
  4. Have students replicate the lines and then insert their own subjects (proper nouns only) and predicates (present tense action verbs only). Share examples and discuss, making sure to use the exact language of instruction.

Lesson #2       Building onto the Lesson #1 Diagram

  1. Draw another vertical line after the predicate, but don’t extend it under the horizontal line.
  2. Write a direct object on top of the horizontal line, just to the right of the second vertical line. Make the direct object be a common noun that doesn’t need an article. Define the direct object as the word that answers “What?” or “Who” from the predicate.
  3. Have students add the second vertical line on to their Lesson #1 Diagram and insert their own subjects, predicates, and direct objects (common nouns only). Don’t allow students to use articles at this point. Share examples and discuss, making sure to use the exact language of instruction.

Lesson #3       Building onto the Lesson #2 Diagram

  1. Draw a vertical line down from the horizontal line below the predicate.
  2. Write an indirect object to the right of the vertical line. Make the indirect object be a pronoun. Define the indirect object as the word that answers “To or For What?” or “To or For Whom” from the predicate.
  3. Have students add the vertical line on to their Lesson #2 Diagram and insert their own subjects, predicates, direct objects (common nouns only), and indirect objects (pronouns only). Don’t allow students to use articles at this point. Share examples and discuss, making sure to use the exact language of instruction.

Lesson #4        Parts of Speech Practice

Download (sent via email) the Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice lessons (see below) and get Lessons #s 1-3 diagrams and eight diagrams for your students to apply the lessons to the parts of speech absolutely FREE.

Hints for Down the Road

On the Horizontal Baseline*

-Place all parts of the predicate verb phrase on the horizontal line between the subject and direct object (has been said).

-If the object is a predicate noun or adjective, draw a backslash ( \ ) slanting toward the subject (He | is / Tom) (He | is / nice).

-Place implied subjects in the subject place within parentheses, for example (You).

-Place appositives after the subject or object within parentheses (Tom (the man in red)).

*After the first three lessons, it is best to refer to the horizontal line as the baseline because more advanced sentence diagrams may have multiple horizontal lines.

Expanding the Baseline

Compound subjects (Tom and Sue) and compound predicates (talked and shopped) are drawn as multiple horizontal lines stacked vertically and are joined at each end by a fan of diagonal lines. The coordinating conjunction (and) is placed next to a dotted vertical line that connects the left ends of the horizontal lines.

Below the Baseline

-Modifiers

Modifiers of the subject, predicate, or object are placed below the baseline. Adjectives (including articles) and adverbs are placed to the right of forward slashes (/), below the words they modify.

-Prepositional Phrases

Prepositional phrases (under the tree) are also placed beneath the words they modify. Prepositions are placed to the right of forward slashes (/), below the words they modify and the forward slashes are connected to the horizontal lines on which the objects of the prepositions are placed.

-Compound Sentences

Compound sentences (Tom walked home, and Sue followed him) are diagrammed separately with the verbs of the two clauses joined by a vertical dotted line with the conjunction written next to the dotted line.

-Subordinate (Dependent) Clauses

Subordinate (dependent clauses) (Although Tom walked home, …) connect the verbs of the two clauses with a dotted forward slash next to which the subordinating conjunction is written. Subordinate (dependent) clauses form their own subject-verb-object baselines.

-Participles and Participial Phrases

A participle (practicing…) is drawn to the right of a backslash, except that a small horizontal line branches off at the end on which the suffix er, _ing, _en, _d, or _ed is written. With a participial phrase, the additional word or words are placed after a vertical line following the participial suffix (practicing soccer).

-Relative Clauses

Relative clauses (whom I know) connect the subject or object of the baseline with a dotted line to the relative pronoun (that, who, whom, which) which begins its own subject-verb-object baseline.

Above the Baseline

-Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

Gerunds (Running) are placed on a horizontal line, connected to a vertical line descending to the baseline. The _ing is written to the right of a backslash at the end of the horizontal line. With a gerund phrase (Running effortlessly), the additional word or words are connected to the backslash on another horizontal line.

-Interjections

Interjections (Hey), Expletives (There), and Nouns of Direct Address are placed on horizontal lines above the baseline and are not connected to the baseline.

-Noun Clauses

Noun clauses (What you should know) branch up from the subject or object sections of the baseline with solid lines and form their own baselines with subject-verb-object vertical lines.

For additional grammatical constructions and sentence diagram samples, I highly recommend these sister sites:

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/diagrams2/one_pager2.htm

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/diagrams2/one_pager1.htm

Get the Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice FREE Resource:

*****

Teaching Grammar and Mechanics for Grades 4-High School

Teaching Grammar and Mechanics Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and High School Programs

I’m Mark Pennington, author of the full-year interactive grammar notebooks,  grammar literacy centers, and the traditional grade-level 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and high school Teaching Grammar and Mechanics programs. Teaching Grammar and Mechanics includes 56 (64 for high school) interactive language conventions lessons,  designed for twice-per-week direct instruction in the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics standards. The scripted lessons (perfect for the grammatically-challenged teacher) are formatted for classroom display. Standards review, definitions and examples, practice and error analysis, simple sentence diagrams, mentor texts with writing applications, and formative assessments are woven into every 25-minute lesson. The program also includes the Diagnostic Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics Assessments with corresponding worksheets to help students catch up, while they keep up with grade-level, standards-aligned instruction.

Grammar, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)

Grammar, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Programs

Or why not get the value-priced Grammar, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) grades 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 BUNDLES? These grade-level programs include both teacher’s guide and student workbooks and are designed to help you teach all the Common Core Anchor Standards for Language. In addition to the Teaching Grammar and Mechanics program, each BUNDLE provides weekly spelling pattern tests and accompanying spelling sort worksheets (L.2), 56 language application opener worksheets (L.3), and 56 vocabulary worksheets with multiple-meaning words, Greek and Latin word parts, figures of speech, word relationships with context clue practice, connotations, and four square academic language practice (L.4, 5, and 6). Comprehensive biweekly unit tests measure recognition, understanding, and application of the grammar, mechanics, and vocabulary components.

The program also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets. Each remedial worksheet (over 200 per program) includes independent practice and a brief formative assessment.

Check out the brief introductory video and enter DISCOUNT CODE 3716 at check-out for 10% off this value-priced program. We do sell print versions of the teacher’s guide and student workbooks. Contact mark@penningtonpublishing.com for pricing. Read what teachers are saying about this comprehensive program:

The most comprehensive and easy to teach grammar, mechanics, spelling, and vocabulary program. I’m teaching all of the grade-level standards and remediating previous grade-level standards. The no-prep and minimal correction design of this program really respects a teacher’s time. At last, I’m teaching an integrated program–not a hodge-podge collection of DOL grammar, spelling and vocabulary lists, and assorted worksheets. I see measurable progress with both my grade-level and intervention students. BTW… I love the scripted lessons!

─Julie Villenueve

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , , , , , ,

Does Sentence Diagramming Make Sense?

FREE Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice Lessons

Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice

Simply put, any language’s grammar is the attempt to organize and systematize how its oral and written language works. A grammar provides a common language of instruction. It helps us understand how words function and how words are put together in a sentence to communicate effectively. It also provides rules for proper word choice, inflections, and usage.

Attempts to graphically represent a grammar are usually called diagramming. Most grammatical diagrams are designed to represent the sentence, since the sentence, by definition, is the

shortest representation of a complete thought. Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg first published the graphic depictions that we call sentence diagrams in their book, Higher Lessons in English, in 1877. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence_diagram Linguists have always used sentence diagramming, albeit with different versions. For example, Noam Chomsky developed his own X-bar diagramming system in 1970. However, the Reed-Kellogg system has remained the most popular method because of its simplicity.

Why Teach Sentence Diagramming?

Proponents argue that sentence diagramming is a useful visual tool that allows teachers and students to identify the different parts of sentences, understand how these parts function, and see how these parts relate to other parts of the sentence. Most students find that the visual image helps them better understand and remember the parts of a sentence, grammatical terms, and the rules of grammar. Sentence diagrams make the abstract components of English grammar concrete for English speakers and writers. With a bit of practice, writers can use diagramming to diagnose their own grammatical errors and fix them.

Why Not Teach Sentence Diagramming?

Opponents argue that constructing sentence diagrams is not authentic writing; it is analysis. Understanding the parts of sentences and how they relate to one another does not necessarily mean that a student can apply this understanding to construct meaningful sentences. Correct sentences are not the same as coherent sentences. Furthermore, sentence diagramming does not go beyond the sentence level and so does not deal with connected thought, that is the paragraph level, or by extension, a unified essay. Lastly, any instructional practice is reductive—it takes away instructional time. Students learning to write benefit more from authentic writing practice, than from sentence diagramming analysis.

Does Sentence Diagramming Make Sense?

Effective writing instruction melds both analysis and practice. Students need the deductive apply-the-components/rules-of-grammar approach and the inductive practice-the-meaningful-communication of ideas-with-feedback approach to become effective writers. Some sentence diagramming does make sense: not too much to take over a writing program, but just enough to do its job. I advocate more recognition practice and less application practice. In other words, providing a sentence diagram with one or two missing words, say the direct and indirect objects, and having students identify and place those two missing parts of the sentence, achieves the instructional objective just as well as taking the time needed for students to construct the whole sentence. If you’re studying a leaf, you don’t have to draw the whole tree.

Find out How to Teach Sentence Diagramming in three 10-minute lessons. Sentence diagramming can be an effective instructional ingredient in a comprehensive standards-based grammar curriculum.

*****

Teaching Grammar and Mechanics for Grades 4-High School

Teaching Grammar and Mechanics Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and High School Programs

I’m Mark Pennington, author of the full-year interactive grammar notebooks,  grammar literacy centers, and the traditional grade-level 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and high school Teaching Grammar and Mechanics programs. Teaching Grammar and Mechanics includes 56 (64 for high school) interactive language conventions lessons,  designed for twice-per-week direct instruction in the grade-level grammar, usage, and mechanics standards. The scripted lessons (perfect for the grammatically-challenged teacher) are formatted for classroom display. Standards review, definitions and examples, practice and error analysis, simple sentence diagrams, mentor texts with writing applications, and formative assessments are woven into every 25-minute lesson. The program also includes the Diagnostic Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics Assessments with corresponding worksheets to help students catch up, while they keep up with grade-level, standards-aligned instruction.

Grammar, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand)

Grammar, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Programs

Or why not get the value-priced Grammar, Mechanics, Spelling, and Vocabulary (Teaching the Language Strand) grades 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 BUNDLES? These grade-level programs include both teacher’s guide and student workbooks and are designed to help you teach all the Common Core Anchor Standards for Language. In addition to the Teaching Grammar and Mechanics program, each BUNDLE provides weekly spelling pattern tests and accompanying spelling sort worksheets (L.2), 56 language application opener worksheets (L.3), and 56 vocabulary worksheets with multiple-meaning words, Greek and Latin word parts, figures of speech, word relationships with context clue practice, connotations, and four square academic language practice (L.4, 5, and 6). Comprehensive biweekly unit tests measure recognition, understanding, and application of the grammar, mechanics, and vocabulary components.

The program also has the resources to meet the needs of diverse learners. Diagnostic grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling assessments provide the data to enable teachers to individualize instruction with targeted worksheets. Each remedial worksheet (over 200 per program) includes independent practice and a brief formative assessment.

Check out the brief introductory video and enter DISCOUNT CODE 3716 at check-out for 10% off this value-priced program. We do sell print versions of the teacher’s guide and student workbooks. Contact mark@penningtonpublishing.com for pricing. Read what teachers are saying about this comprehensive program:

The most comprehensive and easy to teach grammar, mechanics, spelling, and vocabulary program. I’m teaching all of the grade-level standards and remediating previous grade-level standards. The no-prep and minimal correction design of this program really respects a teacher’s time. At last, I’m teaching an integrated program–not a hodge-podge collection of DOL grammar, spelling and vocabulary lists, and assorted worksheets. I see measurable progress with both my grade-level and intervention students. BTW… I love the scripted lessons!

─Julie Villenueve

Want to try sentence diagramming absolutely FREE? Get lessons sent to your email:

Get the Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech Practice FREE Resource:

Grammar/Mechanics, Writing , , , , , ,