What is the Essay Counterclaim?
As is often the case, instructional writing terminology can be confusing and there is no consensus as to a common language of instruction. Regarding the essay counterclaim, which words mean exactly what?
Synonyms for the Counterclaim (with or without hyphens): Counterargument, Opposing Claims, Alternate Claims
Synonyms for the Refutation: Rebuttal, Turn
Whichever words are used, most writing teachers would agree that the opposing point of view should be somehow acknowledged and responded to in an argumentative essay.
But here again the academic community is divided: Just what constitutes an essay?
Some writing teachers see all writing as argumentative including essays, research papers, lab reports, you name it. After all, even the most objective evidence must be evaluated through the lenses of inherently biased writers who attempts to inform, impact, or convince their audiences.
The highly regarded Writing Center resources developed by professors at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill seem to adopt this position: What is an argument? In academic writing, an argument is usually a main idea, often called a “claim” or “thesis statement,” backed up with evidence that supports the idea” http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/argument/.
Another group of resources often used by writing teachers includes The Online Writing Center (OWL) at Purdue University. These professors differentiate argumentative essays from expository essays, but only in terms of the scope of research. Following is their explanation: “Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved” https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/685/05/.
However, the writers of the Common Core State Standards do see a division in purpose and point of view for the purposes of essay instruction and so have separate Standards for the argumentative essay (W. 1.0) and the informational-explanatory essay (W. 2.0). Whether the separate Standards were created as practical measures to reflect the maturity of Kꟷ12 students or as a position on the rules and roles of different rhetorical types I do not know.
Following are the Common Core State Writing Standards for the argumentative essay counterclaim:
No counterclaim is included until seventh grade. Additions to the seventh grade and subsequent Standards have been boldfaced by this author.
Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
Some of the above points adapted from the Harvard Writing Center. In addition to What is the Essay Counterclaim, writing teachers may also be interested in these related articles: Counterclaim and Refutation Sentence Frames, Where to Put the Essay Counterclaim, and Why Use an Essay Counterclaim?
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