## How to Teach Logic

**A basic understanding of logic is necessary to be able to read critically and write with coherence.** Good critical thinking follow rules of logic to observe, interpret, apply, and revise ideas or problems. These rules of logic are not new. In fact, five key forms of logic were developed by the Ancient Greeks. We still use these patterns of thinking, known as *reasoning*, to solve problems today. Students need to be trained to recognize these patterns of logical organization and follow these patterns in their own writing and problem-solving.

**1. Deductive Logic**

In deductive reasoning, the pattern of thinking is whole to part. Specific applications (or conclusions) are made from general statements or accepted ideas.

**Example: **Bees sting. Bee stings hurt. Be careful of bees.

**2. Inductive Logic **

In inductive reasoning, the pattern of thinking is part to whole. Specific applications (or conclusions) lead to more general applications.

**Example: **(Repeated Addition) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = (Multiplication) 4 x 2 = (sum) 8

**3. Syllogistic Logic**

In syllogistic reasoning, an application (or conclusion) about a category that is drawn from two forms of evidence that each make sense as separate categories and relate to each other.

**Example:** All Golden Retrievers are dogs; Calico Kelley is a Golden Retriever; therefore, Calico Kelley is a dog.

**4. Comparative Logic**

In comparative logic, an application (or conclusion) is drawn about a situation based on how one idea or problem is similar to previous ideas or problems. The similarities are based upon logical, historical, or statistical probability.

**Example:** Ian is always absent from school when it rains. It is raining today. Ian will most likely be absent today.

**5. If, ____; then ____ Logic**

In if-then logic, an “if” state proposes a condition or hypothesis, and the “then” provides a logical answer or solution.

**Example:** If A = B, and B = C; then A = C.

**Unfortunately, not all writing follows these rules of logic.** Teaching students to recognize **errors in reasoning** will promote analytical reading and improve their writing coherency.

Number 5 is also a form of syllogism.

Number 5 is also a form of syllogism

Can you recommend a book with exercises to teach logical reasoning? Are there common core standards for logical resoning?

Thanks!

No logical reasoning standards. I offer a Critical Thinking Toolkit, but is not a course in exercises to teach logical reasoning.